Marble is a type of stone that comes from limestone. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and often contains small amounts of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), iron oxide (FeO), aluminum silicate (AlSiO3), clay minerals, and water. Marble is formed when the mineral-rich waters of rivers erode the softer rocks around them. As the river flows over the harder rock, the water wears away the softer rock, leaving behind the hard, durable material we call marble.
The first step in making marble is quarrying the raw materials out of the ground. A quarry is where the marble is extracted from the earth. Quarries vary in size, ranging from small pits dug by hand to huge open pits excavated using heavy machinery. Once the marble has been removed from the quarry, it is loaded onto trucks and taken to processing facilities where it is cut into smaller pieces.
Once the marble has been cut into smaller pieces, it is sent to a factory where it is washed and polished. Washing removes any dirt or debris that may have gotten mixed into the marble while it was being quarried. Polishing brings out the natural beauty of the marble by removing scratches and imperfections. After washing and polishing, the marble is ready to be sold!